Electrical diagram and wiring faults of Gazelle 3302 and Business cars

Each car is equipped with an electrical diagram, which indicates all the devices and equipment used in the car, as well as the connection circuits. The functionality of the wiring is very important for any vehicle, since its damage can significantly complicate the operation of the car. What elements does the Gazelle electrical circuit include, what malfunctions are typical for it? Find answers to these and other questions below.

General information

The electrical wiring diagram in a GAZ car with a carburetor or injector engine consists of many components.

And it doesn’t matter whether it’s Gazelle 402, 405, 406, 3302, 2705, Business or Euro, the electrical circuit will include the following subsystems:

  1. Ignition system. This unit consists of different components, the main ones being the switchgear, spark plugs, and high-voltage wires that transmit the charge. The functionality of the engine and its operation in principle depend on the performance of this system.
  2. Optical system. It includes all external headlights, from headlights to brake lights and fog lights.
  3. Lighting in the car interior, including on the dashboard.
  4. Electronic engine control system (depending on the car model).
  5. Windshield cleaning system, which includes an electric motor and windshield wiper blades.
  6. A fuel system, one of the main components of which is the pump.
  7. Battery and generator unit.
  8. Audio system, if available, etc.

Signs of trouble

There are several types of electrical circuit conditions in Gazelle 405 euro 2, 402, 406, 4216, 2705, 3302 or business diesel cars:

  1. The engine does not start. A car cannot perform its primary function if the engine is not running. Either the wiring on the Gazelle business diesel, 402, 406, 405 euro 2, 4216, 3302, 2705 is damaged, or one of the units or mechanisms of the car has failed.
  2. The car engine starts, but the electrical equipment functions incorrectly or intermittently.

Wiring diagram for a Gazelle 405 car

If, as a result of an attempt to start the engine, the unit does not start, but fuel enters the engine, then most likely the problem lies in the electrical equipment:

  1. If the vehicle is equipped with a carburetor, first you should pay attention to diagnosing high-voltage cables and spark plugs. By the way, quite often on older Gazelle cars with a carburetor, in practice, high-voltage wires cause inconvenience to the driver. If the high-voltage cables have exhausted their service life, the engine will not operate correctly. So check them first. On a Gazelle with a carburetor, it would not be a bad idea to check the performance of the distributor and coil. In addition to high-voltage wires, you can diagnose the electrical circuit in the engine compartment.
  2. In the case of an injector, the situation is slightly different. Of course, high-voltage wires can also cause breakdowns, but first of all you need to pay attention to electrical equipment. In particular, you are interested in the engine management system. If the injector control system is not able to properly process the pulses coming from the regulator, then as a result it will not be able to give commands to other components and mechanisms. Accordingly, interruptions in engine operation will begin.

Electrical wiring of the engine compartment

As practice shows, in most Gazelle business diesel cars, 402, 406, Euro 2,405, 3302, 2705 and others, the causes of breakdowns are acidified or burnt contacts. In this case we are talking about the contacts in the ignition switch. If the ignition switch or unit is inoperative, at least the lighting in the vehicle interior will not be able to work. Also, faulty electrical equipment can lead to inoperability of washers, fans, windshield wipers, etc.

How to determine the malfunction?

If malfunctions occur in the operation of the equipment, first of all you need to check the integrity of the safety devices. If a short circuit or voltage surge occurs in a wiring circuit, the safety elements are the first to fail, protecting the major devices and electrical equipment connected to a particular circuit. Since a visual check is not always effective, troubleshooting should be done using a tester - a multimeter.

The diagnostic procedure consists of removing the fuses from their seats and further checking the sockets. If you have identified a failed fuse, this does not mean that the test can be completed, since a short circuit can occur simultaneously in several circuits (video author - Denis Legostaev).

If a short circuit occurs in the wiring of a car with a carburetor or injection engine, then you need to diagnose the condition of the circuits. Of course, if all the fuses were intact. Before diagnosing, you should disconnect the mass; directly for checking you will need a tester or test light. When using a lamp, one of its contacts should be connected to the base and the other to the center contact.

The check itself goes like this:

  • First, the ignition key should be set to position I;
  • then the probes of the tester or lamp must be connected to the contacts in the fuse sockets in turn;
  • if the lamp does not light up, this indicates that there are no short circuits in the section of the circuit being tested, but if it lights up, then a short circuit has been detected.

Another important point is diagnosing the integrity of electrical circuits. In this case, the search principle is quite simple - for diagnostics you will need the same tester (a voltmeter or ohmmeter will do) or a lamp with wires. You will need to connect one of the probe contacts to the vehicle body, and use the second contact to measure the power at the connecting points between yourself and the equipment.

It is best to start in the middle of the circuit and check easily accessible areas first. In addition, to diagnose a break, it should be understood that most often circuit damage occurs in places where the wiring is bent. Moreover, as practice shows, wire harnesses are very rarely damaged.

Another breakdown in the electrical circuit is poor contact at the connections; searching for such a fault is best done using a tester - a voltmeter.

There are two diagnostic methods:

  1. One probe of the tester should be connected to the car body, and the second to the connection terminal; voltage measurement is carried out in both directions. Please note that the voltage drop should be no more than 0.5 volts.
  2. The next method is to connect one wire to the contact on one end of the plug, and the second to the contact on the other side of this plug. If the tester shows more than 0.5 volts, this indicates that the contacts on the plug should be cleaned (the author of the video is the MZS TV channel).

Replacing wiring on a Gazelle car

The reasons causing the need to replace the electrical wiring according to the diagram in Gazelle cars are not only due to the overhaul of the power unit, but also:

  1. Due to natural wear and tear of wires;
  2. Delamination of insulation due to natural aging;
  3. Mechanical damage (kinks, scuffs);
  4. Short circuits in one or another electrical circuit;
  5. Oxidation of contacts and connectors.

Additional replacement materials

In addition to purchasing new electrical wiring, those corresponding to the motor used must also be replaced:

  1. High voltage wires;
  2. Electronic switch (in later versions of motors of the ZMZ-402 series);
  3. Ignition coil;
  4. Battery charge level relay;
  5. Fuse block contact group;
  6. Egnition lock.

Places requiring installation work

Laying the wiring harness is not a difficult task, especially since the places for their attachment to the frame are provided initially (gutters, service holes, etc.).

Gazelle interior with disassembled dashboard

However, according to complexity, replacement work is divided into areas of responsibility:

  1. Engine compartment;
  2. Vehicle interior;
  3. Rear part of the body.

The easiest part in terms of connection is the rear part of the car, where you only need to secure the harness and connect the rear lights and the fuel level sensor in the gas tank. The interior and engine compartment are more complex.

Possible wiring problems and methods for eliminating them

What malfunctions are most typical for the electrical circuit of Gazelle 4216, 2003, 2705 and other models:

  1. Damage to wiring. If the damage is not serious, then this problem can be solved by additionally insulating the circuit using electrical tape. For more significant damage, it is better to replace the entire chain section.
  2. Failure of the safety element. Malfunctions of this type are resolved by replacing damaged devices. Never use homemade fuses made from a piece of wire or a coin, as this may cause a fire. The only time this is possible is when a fuse has failed, without which the car will not start, for example, the fuse responsible for the fuel pump, and you will only need to get to the nearest store.
  3. Poor contact of the equipment with the electrical network. In this case, you need to make a diagnosis; detailed instructions are presented above. If poor contact is due to oxidation, then it will be enough to clean the connector, but if the contacts burn out, then they will most likely have to be replaced. Please note that you need to determine the reason why the contact burned out.
  4. Problems with the ignition system. For example, this may be damage to the distributor housing, poor contact of high-voltage wires with the distributor and spark plugs. Also, the car owner may encounter a malfunction of high-voltage equipment, in particular, we are talking about an insulation breakdown. This problem will lead to unstable operation of the power unit as a whole; it can be solved by replacing the wires.
  5. Failure or incorrect operation of the generator. This unit, as you know, is designed to power all electrical equipment of the car. It consists of many components, most often the brushes wear out, the windings burn out, and the voltage relay fails. You also need to monitor the tension of the generator belt - it should not be overtightened or under-tightened. Damage to the belt is also not allowed - if there is any, you need to think about an immediate replacement.

Photo gallery “Main faults”

Types of power units

The manufacturer of Gazelles business diesel, 402, 405, 406, 2705, 3302 and other models is the Gorky Automobile Plant.

Initially, two types of engines were used in the production and assembly of vehicles:

  • carburetor engines produced at UMP;
  • injection and carburetor engines supplied by ZMZ (Zavolzhsk enterprise).

Gazelle car diagram
The essence of this approach was to modernize and unify power units for business diesel models, 402, 405, 406, 2705, 3302 and others with UAZ and Volga cars. Of course, in the case of trucks, the electrical circuit diagram was redone.

For certain types of motors, different schemes were used:

  1. In vehicles with an internal combustion engine injector, the operation of the fuel mixture ignition system was initially more demanding in terms of operation. Such units were equipped with electronic ignition elements and injection control units. Of course, in such units the quality of the fuel plays an important role.
  2. As for carburetors, such options are considered more traditional today, but they also have certain features. Of course, the wiring diagram in carburetor engines is different from injectors.

In addition to the main models 402, 405, 406, 2705, 3302 and others, since 2001 the manufacturer began to produce a version called “business diesel”. In the case of a diesel engine, the wiring diagram has also undergone certain changes. In particular, such vehicles began to be equipped with a more powerful starter, battery, and generator (video author - MR. BORODA).

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