Pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-1, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12

Il-12 Chinese Air Force. Chinese Aviation Museum
Typepassenger plane
DeveloperOKB Ilyushin
ManufacturerAviation complex named after S.V. Ilyushin
First flightAugust 15, 1945 (with 2×ACh-31)[1] January 9, 1946 (with 2×ASh-82FN)
Start of operationJune 1, 1947[2]
End of operation1968 (USSR), October 1993 (China)[3]
USSR Air Force
Years of production1946 — 1949
Units produced663
Media files on Wikimedia Commons


(according to NATO:
- “intercity bus”) is a passenger (transport) aircraft for short and medium-haul airlines. The design is an all-metal twin-engine low-wing aircraft with a traditional layout with piston engines and a tricycle landing gear with a nose wheel. The first flight was carried out on August 15, 1945 under the command of test pilot Vladimir Kokkinaki. Il-12 replaced Li-2 and DC-3 on USSR airlines. Later, a more advanced IL-14 was created on its basis.

History of creation

In October 1943, the S.V. Ilyushin Design Bureau began work on the design of a passenger aircraft on its own initiative[4].

The first version of the Il-12 aircraft project was designed for 29 passengers housed in a pressurized fuselage. The maximum flight range was assumed to be 5000 km with a cruising speed of about 400 km/h. It was planned to install four M-88V engines on it (a modified version of the M-88B, which had proven themselves on the Il-4).

In its further development, the aircraft project underwent significant changes.

Four M-88V engines were replaced with two ACh-31 diesel engines, the number of passengers was reduced to 27, and it was decided to abandon the pressurized fuselage.

On March 2, 1944, the layout and general appearance of the Il-12 with ACh-31 engines were approved by S.V. Ilyushin.[5] By the fall of 1944, the preliminary design was completed, and construction of the prototype aircraft began.

The first flight of the Il-12 with ACh-31 diesel engines took place on August 15, 1945. Several flights of test pilots Vladimir and Konstantin Kokkinaki under the factory test program revealed the need for significant modifications to the experimental engines, which could seriously delay the release of the Il-12 on regular lines.

S.V. Ilyushin decided to replace the ACh-31 diesel engines with ASh-82FN gasoline engines. The design of the aircraft was modified to accommodate the installation of new engines, and on January 9, 1946, the first flight of the Il-12 with ASh-82FN engines took place. In the first flights, strong shaking of the propellers manifested itself, which arose due to insufficient rigidity of the blades. Flight tests were carried out on three versions of the propellers, and the shaking was eliminated.

State tests of the Il-12 were successfully completed from July 1 to September 16, 1946.

On August 18, 1946, the first public display of the aircraft took place at an air parade in Tushino.[6]

On October 21, 1946, the Ministry of Aviation Industry issued an order to launch the Il-12 into mass production at Moscow plant No. 30.[6]


In 1950, the Yak-12 UT was tested at the NIIVVS Group of Companies and was recommended for air force flight schools as an effective simulator for training flight personnel. The following disadvantages were identified:

  • 1700 blade revolutions per minute indicated the weak power of the GSK-1500 wind generator.
  • The antenna used had insufficient power - the receiver only worked at an altitude of no higher than 1850 meters.
  • The range of the compass was 160 km. This was not enough, since the commission put forward requirements of at least 180 meters.

After testing in June, a repeat test was scheduled in October of the same year. After modifications, the Yak-12 UT was equipped with:

  • the VD-5 wind engine, which was characterized by a change in the pitch of the blades during flight;
  • The installed T-shaped antenna worked effectively at any height.

In 1952, this aircraft successfully passed new tests. But nevertheless, nowhere in the documents is it listed as the Yak-12 UT.


At the beginning of 1947, five Il-12 aircraft of the experimental series were transferred for operational testing to the first separate air group of the Civil Air Fleet, which was based at Vnukovo airport. During operational testing, 1,500 flights were performed. According to the pilots, the Il-12 was easy to control and could be piloted by both I and II class pilots[7]. Operational tests were completed on May 20.

On May 1, 1947, a group of Il-12s took part in an air parade over Red Square.

On June 1, 1947, regular passenger operation of the Il-12 began at Aeroflot[2].

In 1948, the Il-12 was launched on international scheduled flights. The first airline to use the Il-12 was Moscow - Sofia. Then Il-12s began to fly regularly to Berlin, Belgrade, Budapest, Bucharest, Warsaw, Vienna, Kabul, Prague, Tehran, Stockholm, Helsinki, and Ulaanbaatar. In 1954, the Moscow-Paris airline opened.

In the USSR, the longest flight of the Il-12 was Moscow - Khabarovsk, with a length of 7000 km. The flight took 28 hours, with five intermediate landings.

Since 1956, Il-12 aircraft began to be used in Antarctica.

From the second half of the 1950s, the new Il-14 gradually began to replace the Il-12. In the USSR, Il-12 aircraft were operated until 1968, when the crew of Major V.M. Bazilevich transported the last Il-12 from the 478th training aviation regiment in Borisoglebsk to the Cheboksary school of junior aviation specialists[2].

In China, IL-12s were used on passenger lines until 1988[8]. And two military vehicles with tail numbers “35240” and “35241” were used until October 1993, when they were installed in eternal parking at the Datan Shan Museum[3].

Advantages and disadvantages of IL-12

The IL-12 managed to quickly “conquer” the domestic passenger airlines of the Soviet Union, and then just as quickly “settle” on international airlines. The secret of its success was quite simple: this aircraft was the first fully passenger aircraft developed and produced in the USSR. The ease of operation of the Il-12 was also repeatedly noted, making it accessible to even less experienced pilots.

Thanks to the IL-12, a new era in the life of piston aircraft began. In particular, it was on its basis that the more advanced Il-14 was developed and put into mass production, which was operated an order of magnitude longer - right up to 1989.

As for the aircraft's shortcomings, the main one is the inability to carry out an extended takeoff. This meant that if one of the engines failed, the Il-12 had little chance of landing unscathed. It was this drawback that became the main headache of S.V. Ilyushin’s experimental design bureau during the development of the Il-14.

You can also point out a number of relatively minor design flaws of the machine. In particular, these are some aerodynamic shortcomings of the Il-12, as well as errors in the design of its landing gear doors.


Model nameBrief characteristics, differences.
IL-12The main version of the passenger cabin was the option for 27 passenger seats. Options for 6, 11, 16, 18, 21, 32 seats were also produced.
Il-12BProduction began in 1948. Differences from the IL-12: forklift, rudder with a spring servo compensator, new air-thermal POS (anti-icing system).
Il-12DProduction began in 1948. Transport and landing version of the Il-12. In the transport version it was intended to transport military cargo weighing up to 3700 kg, in the landing version - for landing 38 paratroopers in two streams.
IL-12TProduction began in 1947 (first flight: July 1, 1947[10]). The transport version of the Il-12 was widely used in Polar aviation. A double door 2.4x1.6 m was located on the left side of the fuselage. Load capacity was 3000 kg.

Special options

: Two IL-12s were used as flying laboratories: meteorological and testing experimental PIS (anti-icing systems). Several Il-12s were equipped for aerial photography and at least one was equipped for aerial electromagnetic surveying, used for geological mapping and mineral exploration.


The 1947 Yak-12 is a strut-braced high-wing aircraft using the M-11FR engine. The aircraft design may have a two- or three-seat cabin. Initially, the Yak-12 was designed as a two-seater. The wing struts are V-shaped and converge at a point for attaching the landing gear. Due to the presence of a fixed duralumin slat, a significant angle of attack is not dangerous. Improved pyramidal chassis (tested on the Yak-10) contain a special guy band that stretches from each wheel to a rubber shock absorber.

The braking function is carried out by main wheels measuring 6 x 18 cm and tail wheels measuring 20 x 11 cm. Skis can be attached to them. The control contains cable wiring. Slats located on the wing significantly improve landing properties and have a positive effect on safety during flight.

Flight performance

Data source: Shavrov V.B., History of aircraft designs in the USSR 1938-1950, 1988.


  • Crew: 4-5 people
  • Passenger capacity: 18-32 people
  • Length: 21.31 m
  • Wingspan: 31.7 m
  • Height: 7.8 m
  • Wing area: 103.0 m²
  • Wing profile: Clark-YH
  • Wing aspect ratio:
  • Average aerodynamic chord:
    3593 mm
  • Chassis base:
    5.184 m
  • Chassis track:
    7.92 m
  • Empty weight: 11,000 kg
  • Curb weight: 14,310 kg
  • Normal take-off weight: 17,250 kg
  • Full load weight:
    6118 kg
  • Fuel mass in internal tanks: 2940 kg
  • Fuel tank capacity:
    4170 l
  • Powerplant: 2 × radial ASh-82FN
  • Engine power: 2 × 1850 l. With. (2 × 1380 kW)

Flight characteristics

  • Maximum speed: at an altitude of 2000 m:
    407 km/h
  • at the ground:
    366 km/h
  • Landing speed:
    128 km/h
  • Practical range: 1150 km
  • Service ceiling: 6500 m
  • Rate of climb: 5.5 m/s
  • Climb time:
    5000 m in 15 minutes.
  • Wing load: 168 kg/m²
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 138.8 W/kg (0.189 hp/kg)
  • Run length: 500 m
  • Run length: 700 m
  • Comparative table of characteristics of experimental and production models

    Data source:

    From the history of Soviet aviation: Aircraft of the S.V. Ilyushin Design Bureau /
    G.V. Novozhilov, D.V. Leshchiner, V.M. Sheinin, etc.;
    edited by Novozhilova G.V. - M.: Mechanical Engineering, 1990. - P. 374-375. — ISBN 5-217-01056-8

    Engine2 × ACh-312 × ASh-82FN
    Engine power, l. With. 2 × 19002 × 1850
    Propeller type (number of blades)AB-7E (3)AB-9E (4)
    Screw diameter, m4,44,1
    Take-off weight, kg1600016380 / 172501750016100
    Empty aircraft weight, kg1160011280 / 110001135011300
    Commercial load, kg2900256530401740
    Flight range with commercial load, km1500960 115012501500
    Maximum speed at altitude (m), km/h445 (5000)407 (2060)398 (2050)
    Cruising speed, km/h325350 / 347344330
    Run length, m365475 / 500615460
    Run length, m450563 / 700700600
    Number of passengers27273218
    Development stageexperiencedseries

    The fate of TU-70

    There were several reasons for this, and the most important was the heavy workload of factories producing aircraft with the production of military aircraft for the Air Force. Aeroflot then used the Il-12 for 27 seats, the LI-2 for 28 passengers, and it was believed that this was enough. Although they had a short flight range, they had to be used both on long routes and on routes with popular destinations. For example, at a cruising speed of 350 km/h, a 700 km flight along the Moscow-Leningrad route in 1949 lasted 3 hours.

    Such flights were carried out on the Li-2, but longer flights were made with the help of the Il-12, carrying 18 passengers each. The flight Moscow - Vladivostok (6800 km) was carried out with nine landings to refuel the aircraft, and this took more than 32 hours.

    However, it was considered that Aeroflot’s needs were fully satisfied by the Il-12 and Li-2, and domestic airlines at that time did not need such a large aircraft. There was also another reason that did not allow the use of the TU-70: the technical backwardness of the airfields. A new aircraft requires a concrete runway, and at that time there were very few airports that had them. The issue of modernizing airfields was not yet on the government’s agenda at that time. The TU-70 aircraft was simply ahead of its time.

    The Tu-70 was not written off at that time, but was transferred to the Air Force and was used for official civil air transportation of passengers. Sometimes it was used by Air Marshal V. Stalin. After his father's death, he resigned, and the TU-70 was decommissioned in 1954.

    The T-75 aircraft had a similar fate; it was a military transport vehicle, which was considered inappropriate for the Airborne Forces at that time. However, the beginning of work on building machines with a long flight range, with turbojet and turboprop engines was laid, and it was not in vain for the Soviet aircraft industry.


    37 Il-12 aircraft were lost in accidents and plane crashes [ source not specified 2466 days


    dateBoard numberDisaster siteVictimsShort description
    01.07.1947L1317Vnukovon. d. The engine failed, the plane lost speed and crashed.
    18.12.1947L1343near Krasnoyarsk7/25Engine failure, crashed while returning to the departure airfield.
    02.09.1948L1465Novosibirsk-Severny1/n. d. Lost speed on takeoff and was damaged due to crew errors.
    09.09.1948L1427Buguruslan5/5ShVLP GVF board Loss of control due to simulated engine failure during a training flight.
    12.10.1948L1450Caucasus10/10Disappeared while flying over the mountains.
    23.12.1948L1731near Vnukovo8+4/4The crew took off without a flight assignment, without pre-flight preparation, without weather support and without asking the airport for consent to receive them. As a result of negligence, he collided in the air with a TS-62. A total of 12 people died (8 people were the crew of the second plane).
    19.01.1949L1381Stalino2+8/9Immediately after takeoff, malfunctions occurred in the operation of first the right and then the left engine, as a result of which the plane lost altitude and fell onto a residential building.
    13.05.1949L1791near Novosibirsk25/25During the descent for the landing approach, a thundercloud entered, after which it received a thunderstorm charge, which caused a partial loss of the crew's performance.
    30.07.1950L1803Karaganda25/25Immediately after takeoff, the left engine failed, the crew attempted to return to the departure airfield, however, due to piloting errors, the plane lost altitude and crashed.
    11.08.1950L1706near Sverdlovsk2/27Lack of discipline and violations committed by the PIC and RP.
    17.11.1951L1775near Novosibirsk23/23Fell after takeoff due to icing
    1952SP-LHEWarsawn. d. Engine fire, written off.
    05.04.1952L1308Magdagachi6/6After lifting off from the surface, the plane began to be blown to the right by a strong wind. The crew was unable to counter the roll due to a clamp that was not removed before takeoff, which blocked the left aileron.
    25.04.1952L1312Novosibirsk region8/9Training flight. The inspector decided to simulate a takeoff with one engine running, which was not provided for by the regulations, and the crew lost control.
    18.07.1952SP-LHCWarsaw0/n. d. Damaged during landing.
    05.10.1952L1328near Leningrad7+24/24Collided in the air with a TS-62 aircraft due to the fault of the flight director, who committed a gross violation of the separation order, ignoring warnings from the dispatcher and commander of the Il-12 ship. The RP did not take any measures to separate the aircraft in direction or altitude, despite the obvious convergence of their marks on the locator display.
    23.01.1953L1435near Kazan5+6/6Due to errors by air traffic control services, after takeoff in difficult weather conditions, it collided with a Li-2.
    30.04.1953L1777near Kazan1/23During landing, it collided with a flock of ducks, which caused a loss of power in both engines. The crew made an emergency landing on the surface of the Volga, and after some time the plane sank.
    29.05.1953n. d. Akhtubinsk5/5+3USSR Air Force board. During a test flight, due to a controller error and inattention of the crews, it collided with an Mi-4.
    14.06.1953L1375near Zugdidi18/18Entered thunderclouds and received a thunderstorm charge, which caused partial loss of crew capacity. The plane went into a dive, the crew attempted an abrupt exit, which resulted in partial destruction of the wings.
    27.07.1953USSR Navynear the village of Maoeroshan (Girin Province)21/21A US Air Force F-86 Saber was shot down over Chinese territory and became the last aircraft destroyed during combat operations in Korea (Korean War).[11][12]
    14.10.1953L1727Irkutsk4/28During takeoff at night, the PIC mistook the lights of the DPRS masts for an oncoming aircraft and performed a sharp turn-around maneuver, as a result of which the aircraft lost altitude and crashed.
    27.10.1953L1765Magadan22/32Lost speed while climbing due to icing and exceeding the maximum permissible load weight.
    04.11.1953L1367Magdagachi5/5Due to crew errors, the plane collided with trees during its approach at night.
    27.09.1954L1365Novosibirsk29/29Crashed while landing in foggy conditions due to ATC errors.
    28.10.1954L1789Krasnoyarsk region20/20Collided with the slope of Mount Sivukha due to a deviation from the route.
    05.12.1954L1320Almaty1/19Immediately after takeoff, flames appeared from the left engine, which the crew mistook for a fire. The plane crashed while attempting to make an emergency landing with one engine running.
    04.03.1955H479Mezen4/25Engine failure and fire, forced landing on the ice of Lake Poltozero.
    15.09.1955L1359Krasnoyarsk region7/7It fell into thunderclouds and disintegrated in the air.
    28.04.1956n. d. Berlin3/6Collided with a church bell tower while landing in the fog.
    08.09.1956H525Dixonn. d./0 During landing, he touched down on the runway due to piloting errors.
    23.11.1956OK-DBPEglisau23/23Crashed in a field 12 km from Zurich.
    07.08.1957L1828Magdagachi1/17Made a rough landing short of the runway due to piloting errors.
    01.10.1957L1389Aksha27/28The crew became disorientated, and air traffic control officers did not provide appropriate assistance. The plane crashed while attempting an emergency landing near a nearby village.
    27.10.1957H442station SP-71/6When landing at SMU in polar night conditions, it sank below the minimum permissible height, touched a high hummock and collided with the ice surface.
    18.12.1957L1309Jewish Autonomous Region27/27The rudder was damaged while taxiing to the start. During the flight, the mechanism for attaching the rudder to the keel was completely destroyed, causing loss of controllability and an erratic fall. The wreckage of the plane on the slope of Mount Poktoi was discovered only six months after the disaster.
    09.06.1958L1364near Magadan20/20Collided with the slope of a hill while landing in difficult weather conditions.
    19.09.1958L3904145 km from Khabarovsk28/28Collided with a mountain while trying to make an emergency landing at night in difficult weather conditions due to complete exhaustion of fuel. Loss of orientation, violations by the air traffic control service.
    01.195904249Mirny station0/n. d. Rolled off the runway while on the run, landing gear struts were destroyed.
    28.11.195901426Irkutsk4/4Crashed during landing in conditions of sudden fog, due to an error by air traffic control services.
    21.07.196001405Minsk1+7/28Due to errors in piloting, immediately after a night takeoff on a sodden dirt runway, it fell into the territory of the airport's motor depot.

    Manufacturing parts for the product

    Based on the existing drawings, you can begin cutting out the required parts. It's good if the part has a large number of straight lines. In this case, it is considered simple.

    To work with such a drawing you will need a needle. Using it, all available angles are marked with punctures. Then, along a ruler placed from one puncture to another, paper cuts are made using a stationery knife. They are carried out sequentially until the drawing produces a part of the future aircraft that is completely ready for gluing.

    When gluing them, it is important to ensure that the dimensions and geometry of the future model are not violated

    On each sheet there may be excess areas that need to be cut off. As a result, all fragments of the structure must fit perfectly together. Only after this can they be glued using a syringe.


    1. Official website of JSC Aviation Complex named after. S.V. Ilyushin." Dates of first flights. Archived copy from June 28, 2013 on the Wayback Machine
    2. 1 2 3 Talikov N.D.
      Three quarters of a century of “Ilyushin’s” sky... - M.: Bulletin of the Air Fleet, 2008. - P. 116
    3. 1 2 Udalov K. G., Maraev R. V.
      Ilyushin’s first-born passenger // Aviation and time. - 2000. - No. 5. - P. 16
    4. Talikov N.D.
      Three quarters of a century of “Ilyushin’s” sky... - M.: Bulletin of the Air Fleet, 2008. - P. 97
    5. Talikov N.D.
      Three quarters of a century of “Ilyushin’s” sky... - M.: Bulletin of the Air Fleet, 2008. - P. 98
    6. 1 2 Talikov N.D.
      Three quarters of a century of “Ilyushin’s” sky... - M.: Bulletin of the Air Fleet, 2008. - P. 115
    7. Ed. board: Kutepov A. Ya., Makarevsky A. I., Minaev A. V., Novozhilov G. V. and others. Scientist and designer S. V. Ilyushin. - M.: Nauka, 1978. - P. 79
    8. Egorov Yu. A.
      Aircraft from the S. V. Ilyushin Design Bureau. - M.: RUSAVIA, 2003. - P. 217
    9. Talikov N.D.
      Three quarters of a century of “Ilyushin’s” sky... - M.: Bulletin of the Air Fleet, 2008. - P. 120
    10. Talikov N.D.
      Three quarters of a century of “Ilyushin’s” sky... - M.: Bulletin of the Air Fleet, 2008. - P. 117
    11. The Search Engine that Does at
    12. Execution over Hua Gou, November 25, 2015 Natalya Sergeeva. Internet portal "Rossiyskaya Gazeta - Russian Weapons"
    13. Review of the IL-12 model from Amodel
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