KamAZ 53212 technical characteristics: KamAZ-53212: technical characteristics – KamAZ-53212 - Wikipedia

KamAZ-53212 (6x4)
Total information
Years of production1978—2000
AssemblyKama Automobile Plant (Naberezhnye Chelny, Russia)
Body typeCabin over engine
Wheel formula6 × 4
  • cylinder diameter = 120 mm
  • piston stroke = 120 mm
  • working volume = 10857 cm³
  • configuration = V8
  • valve gear = OHV
  • number of valves = 16
  • type = diesel
  • power = 210 hp/220 hp
mechanical, 5-speed
Weight and dimensions characteristics
Length8530 mm
Width2500 mm
Height3800 mm
Clearance280 mm
Rear track1855 mm
Front track2026 mm
Full mass18,225 tons
Dynamic characteristics
Maximum speed90 km/h
Other information
Load capacity10 tons
Fuel consumption~25 l (Directly depends on the fuel injection pump adjustment)
Volume of the tank240
← KamAZ-5320

KamAZ-53215 →

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- a three-axle flatbed cargo tractor, produced by the Kama Automobile Plant (KAMAZ) from 1978 to 2000 on the KamAZ-53213 chassis. It is an extended version of the basic model of the KamAZ-5320 family.

KamAZ-53212 onboard tractor-trailers are designed to operate as road trains primarily with GKB-8352 trailers of the same size. The body is a metal platform with folding side and rear sides. The flooring is wooden; installation of an awning is provided. The cabin is a three-seater, tilting forward, noise- and thermally insulated, equipped with seat belt fastening points, with a berth. The driver's seat is sprung and adjustable according to the driver's weight, length, and backrest angle. KamAZ-53212 vehicles are equipped with engine pre-heaters.

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technical characteristics (performance characteristics), load capacity, overall dimensions, military, how much it weighs

Trucks from the Kama Automobile Plant became more than just equipment for the Soviet Union. The vehicles from Naberezhnye Chelny were at one time so modern and advanced that “KAMAZ” for some time became the collective name for heavy trucks in general.

However, updates to the model range occurred, unfortunately, infrequently. By the beginning of the 90s, Tatar trucks went from innovative to rather conservative. But, as it turned out, the country needed just such a machine in difficult times - simple and unpretentious to maintain. The same was the long-wheelbase KamAZ-53212.

History of creation

Now it is no longer a secret that the roots of KamAZ trucks must be sought in Moscow. The ZiL plant, which in the 60s produced vehicles similar in design and construction to the American Ford flatbed trucks of the mid-50s, was not going to stop there. The transport economy of the Soviet Union required a modern heavy-duty vehicle that was undemanding to road conditions.

So in 1967, the ZIL-170 appeared - a three-axle truck with a cabover layout. But in 1969, a new complex of automobile factories began to be built in Tatarstan. It was decided to transfer promising vehicles there. So the ZIL-170 became KamAZ.

In 1976, production of new cars began.

The first representative of the basic modification to roll off the assembly line was the 5320 flatbed truck. This was followed by specialized options. In 1978, they mastered the production of the KamAZ-53202 model. It differed from the standard version by an increased wheelbase and, as a result, a longer body. However, the vehicle’s carrying capacity did not change and was 8 tons. “53202” was not produced for long - already in 1980 it was replaced by KamAZ-53212.

By this time, the plant had completed work begun in 1974 to create an engine for heavy-duty vehicles. Initially, they were going to develop a 10-cylinder version of the YaMZ-740 engine for this role. This idea was later abandoned in favor of equipping the 8-cylinder engine with turbocharging. Successful tests of the turbodiesel made it possible to equip long-wheelbase KamAZ-53212 flatbed trucks with it.

Description of design

KamAZ-53212 is a flatbed truck, also suitable for use as a tractor (with a trailer). The digital index of the model indicates its “weight category” (up to 20 tons), belonging to the class of trucks and the serial number of the modification.

The basis of the machine’s design is a steel frame to which the units are attached.

The KamAZ-7403.10 engine has a working volume of 10.8 liters, the piston diameter is equal to its stroke. The engine has 2 valves per cylinder, the camshaft is located in the camber of the blocks. Fuel is supplied to the cylinders by a high-pressure fuel pump. It differs from the base model of the 7403.10 engine by the presence of 2 turbochargers installed in the exhaust tract. The compression ratio had to be reduced somewhat, but the power increased from 210 to 260 forces.

Torque also increased to 785 Nm. The reference fuel consumption increased slightly – from 29.6 to 31.5 liters per 100 km at a speed of 80 km/h. The engine could be equipped with a heater to facilitate starting in cold weather.

It must be said that V8 engines are rarely used in trucks these days. Preference is given to simpler in-line 6-cylinder engines. Individual cylinder heads are also becoming rare.

The engine is coupled with a 5-speed manual transmission. Torque is transmitted to the gearbox through a 2-disc clutch with a pneumatic booster for the switching mechanism. Synchronizers in the gearbox ensure that gears are engaged (from 2 to 5) without double squeezing the clutch and shifting the gears. The gearbox is complemented by a divider, providing actually 10 forward speeds (and 2 reverse).

The center differential is equipped with a locking mechanism.

The wheels of the KamAZ-53212 truck are discless, with tube tires. Wheel diameter is 20 inches. The rear axles use dual-ply tires.

The front suspension design is simple and traditional. It is dependent, equipped with leaf springs and shock absorbers. The rear axle suspension is balanced, with inverted springs. The brake mechanisms of all wheels are drum, two-block. But they are activated by a whole complex of systems.

The main brake drive mechanism is pneumatic. The rear wheel brakes act as parking brakes, and in this case they operate from spring mechanisms. The auxiliary engine brake can also be used to slow down the vehicle. The steering is of the “screw-ball nut” type, equipped with a hydraulic booster for driver convenience.

What distinguished KamAZ-53212 from the base vehicles of the family was not only its powerful turbodiesel. It was standard equipped with an extended cab with a berth, which most Kama trucks received only as an option. The “sleeping bag” was not distinguished by record dimensions or particularly rich decoration (there was nothing in it except a bed), but most Soviet trucks did not have this either. The cabin was designed for 3 people, and the driver's seat was the most comfortable - it was adjustable and had suspension.

In parallel with the KamAZ-53212 truck, the GKB-8352 trailer was put into production.

The trailer was maximally unified with Kama vehicles; its load capacity reached 10 tons. Thus, the road train could transport up to 20 tons of cargo. The control fuel consumption when operating a tractor-trailer increased to 44.8 liters per 100 km at a speed of 80 km/h.

Modifications and production

Although KamAZ-53212 itself was a modification of the main model “5320”, “sub-modifications” were also produced on its basis. For the northern regions of the country, a “polar” modification “532121” was produced. The model “532126” was developed for the foreign market. The export version could be distinguished by right-hand steering and lighting technology of the European standard - with headlights in the bumper. “532127”, adapted for hot climates, was supplied to southern countries.

Separately, the production range included a long-wheelbase chassis, differing from the KamAZ-53212 only in the absence of a body. The tropical version of the chassis had the index “532137”. Since the late 80s, the KamAZ-53218 went into production - a modification capable of using not only diesel fuel, but also compressed gas. At the same time, engine power decreased to 210 hp.

The KamAZ-53212 truck was produced for two decades without undergoing significant changes. In the 90s, a real stream of imported trucks poured into Russia, often surpassing Kama cars in power and comfort. But the plant in Naberezhnye Chelny survived, largely due to the fact that its machines were cheap and easy to operate. And even the low reliability was partially compensated by the ease of repair and availability of spare parts.

In the last years of production, model 53212 trucks received a modified design - a different cabin lining and rectangular headlights in the bumper.

Production of the veteran truck ceased in 2000. It was replaced by KamAZ-53215 with a modified high cab and a more environmentally friendly engine.


To better imagine what the KamAZ-53212 was like in the USSR, let’s compare it with such a heavy truck as the KrAZ-257.

Weight, t811
Length, m8,59,6
Width, m2,52,6
Engine power, hp260240
Maximum speed, km/h9068
Load capacity, t1012

KrAZ, although somewhat superior to trucks from Naberezhnye Chelny in terms of carrying capacity, was inferior to them in everything related to ease of use. Model “257” differed slightly in design from the Yaroslavl trucks transferred to Kremenchug back in the 50s.

And Yaroslavl cars, in turn, were created under the impression of American Lend-Lease tractors. Compared to KrAZs with a cramped cabin on a wooden frame, KamAZs could seem simply the height of perfection and comfort.

KamAZ-53212 fulfilled its task with honor, becoming a reliable and unpretentious worker.

Trucks of this model have not been produced for almost 20 years, but they are still in operation and can be purchased.

True, mostly late production cars have survived to this day. And soon “53212” can only be found in a museum - if someone bothers to preserve a copy for posterity.


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  • Wheel formula - 6 × 4
  • Weight parameters and loads, vehicle Curb weight of the vehicle, kg −8200
  • front axle load, kgf −3525
  • load on the rear bogie, kgf −4475
  • Car load capacity, kg −10000
  • Gross vehicle weight, kg −18225
  • load on the front axle, kgf −4290
  • load on the rear bogie, kgf −13935
  • Car load capacity, kg - 10000
  • Total weight, kg - 20000
  • Engine
      Model - KamAZ-740
  • Type - diesel
  • Power kW(hp) - 154(210)
  • Location and number of cylinders - V-shaped, 8
  • Working volume, l - 10.85
  • Transmission
      Type - mechanical, 5-speed + 2-speed divider
  • Cabin
      Type - located above the engine,
  • Version - with sleeping place
  • Wheels and tires
      Wheel type - discless
  • Tire type - pneumatic, tube
  • Tire size - 9.00R20 (260R508)
  • Platform
      Side platform, with metal folding sides
  • Internal dimensions, mm - 6090x2420
  • General characteristics
      Maximum speed, km/h - 80
  • Fuel capacity - 250 l
  • Fuel consumption — ~25 l/100 km
  • The angle has been overcome. rise, not less, % - 30
  • External overall turning radius, m - 9.8
    • Supply system:
  • Fuel tank capacity, l −240
  • Electrical equipment:
  • Voltage, V −24
  • Batteries, V/Ah - 2x12/190
  • Generator, V/W −28/1000
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    KamAZ 53212

    KamAZ 53212 is a heavy three-axle flatbed tractor, the production of which has been carried out at the Kama Automobile Plant for over 10 years. This model was an extended modification of the basic version - KamAZ 5320.

    The equipment was very popular, and its production ended only in 2002. Despite its advanced age, this model can still be found on the roads of Russia and the CIS countries.

    KamAZ 53212 has relatively good technical characteristics and confidently copes with the assigned tasks.

    The equipment received a rear layout and a 6 by 4 wheel arrangement, which allowed it to carry out transportation on various types of roads. It was this advantage, coupled with low cost and high maintainability, that was valued by the owners of this car.

    General information

    The production of trucks by the Kama Automobile Plant began in the mid-1970s. Freight transport at that time was vital for the country. Before the advent of KamAZ products, there was a catastrophic shortage of vehicles capable of moving with a large load on poor Russian roads.

    The KamAZ 53212 model was first talked about in 1978, but its mass production started only 2 years later. The younger relative of the car was the KamAZ 53202 truck. However, it was soon forced out of the assembly line by a more advanced model. The first versions of KamAZ 53212 were equipped with a metal platform that could accommodate up to 32 cubic meters of cargo.

    The equipment was distinguished by its rear layout and ability to transport a large mass of cargo. Moreover, the machine could work together with a trailer, which significantly increased its functionality. Thanks to the triple folding sides and tailgate, the versatility and performance of the KamAZ 53212 has increased significantly.

    The developers also provided the possibility of installing an awning to protect the cargo from precipitation.

    Compared to its predecessor, KamAZ 53212 had a greater load capacity. The car also received an improved reclining all-metal cabin, designed for three people. Already in the basic configuration it was equipped with a berth and fastenings for seat belts.

    Production of KamAZ 53212 lasted almost 20 years. However, the truck did not undergo any major changes during this period. Gradually, interest in the model disappeared; it began to yield to most competitors. As a result, in 2000 the car was discontinued and replaced with a more advanced model.

    The main difference between KamAZ 53212 was its long wheelbase, which significantly increased the model’s application possibilities. In addition, the truck was designed for operation in wide temperature ranges. The car worked confidently in the temperature range from -35 to +40 degrees Celsius. It also functioned normally at altitudes up to 3000 m above sea level.

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